PyCon Russia 2015
18-19 сентября
под Екатеринбургом

Python's (future) type annotation system(s)

David Mertz 31.01.2015

Python is a dynamically (but strongly, for some value of "strongly") typed programming language.
Notwithstanding its dynamism, checking types -- or other behaviors -- of variables
has always been possible in Python code, and a steady stream of users have had a desire to do so.
At a conceptual level, enforcing a type is a subset of enforcing an invariant on a variable,
and the broader demand for design by contract has been a recurrent theme in Python discussions.
PEP 316 addressed this desire (but was not accepted) a decade ago,
as did the long defunct library PyDBC. Currently maintained, however, is the PyContracts library,
which allows documenting and enforcing both types narrowly, and predicates of variables more broadly. I myself wrote a simple recipe for basic type checking using PEP 3107 annotations at the Python Cookbook: Type checking using Python 3.x annotations (

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